“There are more than 3,000 fundamental movements in Taekwon-Do, and General Choi was
very proud of this. These movements are basic elements that can be likened to musical
notes; when linked, they produce a harmonious result. These fundamental movements use
all parts of the body and are performed in harmony with the Theory of Power of Taekwon-
Do. The student will practice these movements regularly with the goal of mastering each one
of them, defensive and attack movements alike, so that they will be available when needed”
What is a Pattern?
A Pattern is a set of fundamental movements, mainly defence and attack, set in a logical
sequence to deal with one or more imaginary opponents. Patterns are an indication of a
student's progress - a barometer in evaluating an individuals technique.
A student will find that he will have to return time and time again to the beginning fundamental movements to perfect his advanced sparring and
Each fundamental movement, in most cases, represents and attack or defence against a particular target area or definite action of an imaginary
opponent or opponents. It is necessary to learn as many fundamental movements as possible and fit them into complete proficiency so the student can
meet any situation in actual combat with confidence. The pattern actually places the student in a hypothetical situation where he must avail himself to
defence, counterattack, and attack motions, against several opponents. Through constant practice of these patterns, the attack and defence become a
conditioned reflex movement. Power and speed must be developed to such a high degree that only one single blow is needed to stop an opponent, so
the student can shift stance and block or attack another opponent. Each pattern is different from the other in order to develop reaction against
Once the basic patterns are mastered, the student then begins to physically apply the skill obtained from fundamental patterns and movements to
sparring against actual moving opponents.
Hand & Foot Techniques
Techniques against knife, choking, punching, kicking and grabbing.
Step & Foot Sparring
It is a prearranged sparing between two players as they agree on the rules and the number of steps to be taken, the target to attack and to used which
correct tool (fist or foot). No contact as the purpose of Step or Foot Sparing is to develop control between two players. Step Sparring consist of 1, 2 or
There are no steps or prearranged movements; it consist of open combat between two or more players with controlled attacks using all available
methods and techniques to execute.
Free sparring is based on accuracy, speed, timing, distance, and quality of technique. Balance, blocking and foot work skills, and attitude are also very
Each player is free to move and attack; it encourages the development of strategies for attack and defence. Since free sparring is practiced as a
non-stop fight that may consist of one, two or three rounds, being in top physical condition is very important.
Instills focus, accuracy, balance and use the right body weight and momentum.
The goal of breaking allows the student to develop confidence. Breaking provides the student to understand and master the techniques to allow him or
her to produce maximum power.
Special techniques are to combine athletic performance with perfect execution of techniques. These techniques include flying techniques and can be
spectacular. Height and distance of movements are emphasized.
Sparring consists of six main types: step, semi-free, free , model , foot , and pre-arranged free:
Step-Sparring, two students work together to perform a set of prearranged techniques. Movement are with one-step, two-step or three-step.
Primary emphasis should be on proper form.
Semi-Free Sparring (free one-step), usually involves the same techniques as in step-sparring, but the attacker and defender are allowed to move
around in free-sparring stances until the moment of attack/defense. The completion of the attack and the counter should still be in the full basic
Free-Sparring, two students fight each other using all permitted techniques in any combination they choose. In competition, a referee control a
free-sparring match and the referee and corner judges awards points and determine the winner. In training, many pairs of students may free-spar
simultaneously under the supervision of the instructor and assistants. This form of free-sparring is a learning experience, so the sparring students
Foot Sparring is used to improve techniques by forcing the students to use their feet for both attack and defense. By limiting techniques to the
feet, students are able to perfect the use.
Model Sparring This is chiefly used for demonstration purposes but it is also very useful for students to see how techniques, how they should be
used and if the techniques is actually the correct one for the particular situation. Model Sparring is performed between two people, the moves will
be agreed previously. The attacker and defender performs the demonstration at normal speed
first then repeats the demonstration in slow motion.
Pre-Arranged Free The players decide what kind of attacks that will be used, how often and how many steps are
allowed before an attack must be made. All the variables can be adjusted, only kicks to a
particular target, or a particular attacking tool must be only be used, or attackers must alternate
between "one attack one defence one attack one defence and so on".