II
Son Byong-hi (April 8, 1861 - May 19, 1922) was a Korean nationalist. He was born in Cheongju, in Chungcheong province. In 1884 he heard of the Donghak religion and its
ideals of supporting the nation and comforting the people, and decided to become a member.
After joining Donghak, Son entered into a period of profound training that included reading and reciting the Donghak "Incantation of Twenty-One Letters" thirty thousand
times a day. In addition he made straw sandals, which he sold at the market in Cheongju. He is thought to have lived in this manner for roughly three years.
After this period, Son Byong-Hi became the student of Choe Si-Hyung, who was the second leader of Donghak, and entered a life of devoted study. In 1894 Choe Si-Hyung
led the Gabo Donghak Revolution in protest at the corruption of the Joseon government, and Son Byong-Hi served as a commander. This revolution quickly grew into a
resistance struggle against foreign invasion and occupation, in which Japan was the principal target. Choe's forces met defeat in 1895, however, and the revolution was
put down at the hands of Japan's superior modern weaponry. After living for some years as a fugitive, Choe Si-Hyung was captured by pursuing government troops in 1898
and executed, although he had foreseen that his time was marked, and on December 24, 1897 he ordained Son Byong-Hi as the 3rd Great Leader of Donghak.
In 1898, following the execution of Choe Si-Hyung, Son Byong-Hi sought political asylum in Japan. After the Russo-Japanese War in 1904, he returned to Korea and
established the Chinbohoe ("progressive society"), a new cultural and reformist movement designed to reverse the declining fortunes of the nation and to create a new
society.

Through Donghak he conducted a nationwide movement that aimed at social improvement through the renovation of old customs and ways of life. Hundreds of thousands
members of Donghak cut their long hair short and initiated the wearing of simple, modest clothing. Non-violent demonstrations for social improvement organised by
members of Donghak took place throughout 1904. This coordinated series of activities was known as the Gapjin reform movement.

Members of Donghak were severely persecuted by the Japanese government, and so, on December 1, 1905, Son decided to modernise the religion and usher in an era of
openness and transparency in order to legitimise it in the eyes of the Japanese. As a result he officially changed the name of Dong Hak to Cheondogyo ("Heavenly Way").
The following year, Cheondogyo was established as a modern religious organisation. Its central headquarters were based in Seoul.

Over the years of Japanese colonial rule since the annexation in 1910, Son Byong-Hi, like all Koreans, longed for freedom and independence. As a result of these years of
oppression, he helped to set up a systematic underground anti-Japanese movement throughout 1918 which saw uprecedented cooperation between Cheondogyo,
Christians and Buddhists as they united under a common cause. Son's Cheondogyo gave financial support to the whole movement, and he insisted that the independence
movement must be popular in nature and non-violent. A Declaration of Independence was prepared and 33 national leaders selected, 15 of which were members of
Cheondogyo. Son Byong-Hi was the most prominent of these.

The climax came on March 1, 1919 when, during a period of public mourning for the recently deceased Emperor Gojong, the Declaration of Independence was publicly
proclaimed at Pagoda Park in Seoul—this was known as the March 1st Movement, or Samil Movement.

This spark ignited the public, who took to the streets and demonstrated, calling for Korean independence. This initiated a nationwide movement in which many people took
part, regardless of locality and social status, but the Japanese immediately mobilised their police and army and brutally put down the demonstrations, despite their
peaceful nature. More than 7,500 Koreans were killed, nearly 17,000 wounded, and around 47,000 arrested, including Son Byong-Hi.

While in prison, Son became ill and was eventually released from custody on sick bail. His illness worsened, however, and in 1922 he died at home in Sangchunwon, just
outside the Dongdaemun gate.

The Taekwondo pattern Eui-Am was named in honor of Son Byong-Hi after his respectful title of Eui-am Seong-sa.
EUI-AM
Movements - 45
Ready Posture - CLOSED READY STANCE D

Pattern Meaning
EUI- AM is the pseudonym of Son Byong Hi, leader of the Korean
independence movement on March 1, 1919. The 45 movements
refer to his age when he changed the name of Dong Hak (Oriental
culture) to Chondo Kyo (Heavenly way religion) in 1905. The
diagram represents his Indomitable Spirit, displayed while
dedicating himself to the prosperity of his nation.
1. Move the right foot to C forming a left walking stance toward D while executing a low inward block to D
with the right knife-hand.

2. Move the left foot to C forming a right walking stance toward D while executing a high side block to D
with the left outer forearm.

3. Execute a middle punch to D with the right fist while maintaining a right walking stance toward D.

4. Execute a low twisting kick to D with the left foot keeping the position of the hands as they were in 3.

5. Lower the left foot to D forming a left walking stance toward D while executing a downward block with
an x-fist.

6. Execute a rising block with the right knife-hand, maintaining a left walking stance toward D. Perform 5
and 6 in a continuous motion.

7. Jump to D, forming a right x-stance toward BD while executing a high side strike to D with the right back
fist bringing the left finger belly to the right side fist.

8. Move the left foot to C forming a right L-stance toward C while executing a middle punch to C with the
left fist.

9. Execute a middle reverse turning kick to AC with the right foot.

10. Lower the right foot to C in a stamping motion to form a sitting stance toward A while executing a
middle side strike to C with the right knife-hand.

11. Execute a middle side piercing kick to C with the left foot while turning clockwise pulling both hands in
the opposite direction.

12. Lower the left foot to C forming a left walking stance toward C while executing a high crescent punch
with the right fist.

13. Execute a middle turning punch with the left fist while forming a parallel stance toward C pulling the
right foot. Perform in slow motion.

14. Move the left foot to D forming a right walking stance toward C while executing a low inward block with
the left knife-hand.

15. Move the right foot to D forming a left walking stance toward C at the same time executing a high side
block to C with the right outer forearm.

16. Execute a middle punch to C with the left fist while maintaining a left walking stance toward C.

17. Execute a low twisting kick to C with the right foot, keeping the position of the hands as they were in
16.

18. Lower the right foot to C forming a right waling stance toward C while executing a downward block with
an x-fist.

19. Execute a rising block with the left knife-hand while maintaining a right walking stance toward C.
Perform 18 and 19 in a continuous motion.

20. Jump to C forming a left x-stance toward BC while executing a high side strike to C with the left back
fist and bringing the right finger belly to the left side fist.

21. Move the right foot to D, forming a left L-stance toward D while executing a middle punch to D with the
right fist.

22. Execute a middle reverse turning kick to AD with the left foot.

23. Lower the left foot to D in a stamping motion to form a sitting stance toward A at the same time
executing a middle side strike to D with a left knife-hand.

24. Execute a middle side piercing kick to D with the right foot while turning counter-clockwise pulling both
hands in the opposite direction.

25. Lower the right foot to D forming a right walking stance toward D while executing a high crescent
punch with the left fist.

26. Execute a middle turning punch with the right fist while forming a parallel stance toward D pulling the
left foot. Perform in slow motion.

27. Move the right foot to D forming a right walking stance toward D at the same time executing a middle
wedging block with a knife-hand.

28. Execute a circular block to BD with the left reverse knife-hand while maintaining a right walking
stance toward D.

29. Execute a downward block with an alternate palm while forming a left rear foot stance toward D
pulling the right foot.

30. Execute a middle punch to D with the left fist while forming a left L-stance toward D slipping the right
foot.

31. Execute a low inward block to D with the right reverse knife-hand while shifting to C maintaining a left
L-stance toward D.

32. Move the left foot to D forming a left walking stance toward D while executing a middle wedging block
with a knife-hand.

33. execute a circular block to AD with the right reverse knife-hand while maintaining a left walking stance
toward D.

34. Execute a downward block with an alternate palm while forming a right rear foot stance toward D
pulling left foot.

35. Execute a middle punch to D with the right fist while forming a right L-stance toward D slipping the left
foot.

36. Execute a low inward block to D with the left reverse knife-hand while shifting to C maintaining a right
L-stance toward D.

37. Execute a high reverse turning kick to BD with the right foot.

38. Lower the right foot to D forming a left rear foot stance toward D while executing a middle guarding
block to D with the forearm.

39. Execute a high reverse turning kick to AD with the left foot.

40. Lower the left foot to D forming a right rear foot stance toward D while executing a middle guarding
block to D with the forearm.

41. Move the left foot to the side rear of the right foot and then the right foot to C forming a right L-stance
toward D while executing a low outward block to D with the left knife-hand.

42. Execute a middle punch to D with the right fist while forming a left walking stance toward D slipping
the right foot.

43. Move the left foot to C forming a left L-stance toward D while executing a low block to D with the right
knife-hand.

44. Execute a middle punch to D with the left fist while forming a right walking stance toward D slipping
the left foot.

45. Execute a high punch to D with the right fist while maintaining a right walking stance toward D.
END: Bring the right foot back to a ready posture.
Rare International Tae Kwon-Do (ITF) video produced with the
GENERAL CHOI on North Korea, you can see Grand Master Park Jung
Tae, Grand Master Choi Jung Wha and other masters of the ITF
performing tuls and explaining the movements of each tul.