Movements - 30
Ready Posture - PARALLEL READY STANCE
CHOONG-MOO was the name given to the great Admiral Yi
Soon-Sin of the Lee Dynasty. He was reputed to have invented
the first armoured battleship (Kobukson) in 1592, which is said to
be the precursor of the present day submarine. The reason why
this pattern ends with a left hand attack is to symbolize his
regrettable death, having no chance to show his unrestrained
potentiality checked by the forced reservation of his loyalty to
Inside the Kobuckson
In Korean history, which spans over five millennia, there have been many national heroes, but none compares to
Yi Sun-sin who saved Choson Korea from the brink of collapse during the Japanese invasion of 1592. He is still
dearly cherished in the hearts of Koreans today. In a nationwide survey conducted by Soonchunhyang
University in April 2005, Yi Sun-sin was chosen as the greatest figure in Korean history by 43.8% of the vote (The
Chosun Daily, April 15, 2005).
It is, therefore, very regrettable that Yi’s noble life and the marvelous deeds he performed for his country and
people are not well-known outside of Korea. Admiral Yi achieved a battle record that no one in history has ever
matched. Genghis Khan lost two battles out of the twenty that he fought, Napoleon Bonaparte four battles out of
twenty three, Emperor Frederick four battles out of twelve, and Hannibal one battle out of five. Yet in all of the
twenty three battles that he fought at sea, Admiral Yi was never once defeated. Overcoming formidable odds in
terms of numbers of ships and troops, he led his navy to victory in every engagement he fought during seven
years of war with the Japanese, losing in total only two ships of his own.
In his book, The Influence of Sea on the Political History of Japan, George Alexander Ballard, (1862-1948), a vice-
admiral of the British Royal Navy, summarized Yi’s life and victories as follows.
It is always difficult for Englishmen to admit that Nelson ever had an equal in his profession, but if any man is
entitled to be so regarded, it should be this great naval commander of Asiatic race who never knew defeat and
died in the presence of the enemy; of whose movements a track-chart might be compiled from the wrecks of
hundreds of Japanese ships lying with their valiant crews at the bottom of the sea, off the coasts of the Korean
peninsula...and it seems, in truth, no exaggeration to assert that from first to last he never made a mistake, for his
work was so complete under each variety of circumstances as to defy criticism... His whole career might be
summarized by saying that, although he had no lessons from past history to serve as a guide, he waged war on
the sea as it should be waged if it is to produce definite results, and ended by making the supreme sacrifice of a
defender of his country. (p. 66–67)
The following is an extract from a paper published by the Japanese Institute of Korean Studies (日本朝鮮硏究所).
Togo returned from the victorious Battle of Tsushima(1905) in which he had defeated the Russian Baltic Fleet, at
that time the world’s most powerful naval force. He had been instated as Admiral of the Japanese Navy, and at a
celebratory gathering, a member of the company exclaimed, “Your great victory is so remarkable that it deserves
an everlasting place in history. You can be regarded the equal of Admiral Nelson, who defeated Napoleon in the
Battle of Trafalgar; you are indeed a god of war.” To this Admiral Togo replied “I appreciate your compliment.
But,...if there ever were an Admiral worthy of the name of ‘god of war’, that one is Yi Sun-sin. Next to him, I am little
more than a petty officer.”
Japanese scholar Hujizka Akinao mentions in his essay In Admiration of Admiral Yi Sun-sin (“Kyung Hee” Vol. 8.
1977) that Togo regarded Yi as his master, and held a ceremony for him before the Battle of Tsushima (it is a
Japanese custom to hold a ceremony for ancestors or historically significant figures before important occasions).
Few of the world’s great war heroes have been able to avoid criticism and censure, least of all from those they
fought against, enduring such taunts as ‘brutal oppressors’ or ‘starving wolves’. Admiral Yi, in contrast, has been
held as an object of admiration and reverence even among the Japanese, whose minds were swayed by his pure
and absolute loyalty to his country and people, his brilliant use of strategy and tactics which led invariably to
victory, his invincible courage that overcame every adverse circumstance, and his unbending integrity. This
admiration is apparent in the many speeches and writings by Japanese military officers and historians which
speak of Admiral Yi, and following are some examples.
Throughout history there have been few generals accomplished at the tactics of frontal attack, sudden attack,
concentration and dilation. Napoleon, who mastered the art of conquering the part with the whole, can be held to
have been such a general, and among admirals, two further tactical geniuses may be named: in the East, Yi Sun-
sin of Korea, and in the West, Horatio Nelson of England. Undoubtedly, Yi is a supreme naval commander even on
the basis of the limited literature of the Seven Years War, and despite the fact that his bravery and brilliance are not
known to the West, since he had the misfortune to be born in Choson. Anyone who can be compared to Yi should
be better than Michiel de Ruyter from Netherlands. Nelson is far behind Yi in terms of personal character and
integrity. Yi was the inventor of the iron-clad warship known as the Turtle Ship (Geobukseon). He was a truly great
commander and a master of the naval tactics of three hundred years ago.
- Sato Destaro (1866-1942), a vice-admiral of the Japanese Navy,
A Military History of the Emperor, p. 399.
Yi Sun-sin is a famous Korean general who defeated the Japanese in every one of the battles at sea when
Toyotomi Hideyoshi’s troops invaded Choson Korea. He was unique among Choson civil and military officers for
his honesty and incorruptibility, and in terms of leadership and tactics, as well as loyalty and courage, he was an
ideal commander almost like a miracle. He was a renowned admiral before the time of Nelson, and has never yet
had an equal in world history. Although the existence of this figure grew to be almost forgotten in Korea, the
admiration of his memory was handed down in Japan through generations so that his tactics and
accomplishments were researched and subjected to close study when the Japanese Navy was established
during the Meiji period.
- Siba Ryotaro, “Clouds over the hill” , Sankei Newspaper, March 27, 1972.
Of Admiral Yi’s twenty-three sea battles, the most crucial were the Battle of Hansan and Battle of Myongnyang. In
the Battle of Hansan, considered as among the greatest naval engagements in history, Yi, by means of his famous
‘Crane Wing’ formation, achieved a great victory by sinking and capturing fifty-nine of the seventy-three Japanese
ships which opposed him, thereby frustrating Hideyoshi’s plan of advancing along the coast. The Battle of
Myongnyang, in which he defeated 130 enemy ships with 13 ships his own, is regarded among maritime
historians as nothing less than a miracle.
Yi is often compared with Admiral Nelson and Admiral Togo. All three men were heroes who fought for the destiny
of their countries and saved their countrymen from foreign invasion by the securing of key naval victories.
However, the circumstances of Nelson’s Battle at Trafalgar and of Togo’s Battle at Tsushima differ strikingly from
those of the Battle of Myongnyang fought by Admiral Yi.
At the Battle of Trafalgar, England, a nation traditionally strong on the sea, was facing an enemy who was at that
time inexperienced in naval warfare, and who commanded a fleet not much larger than her own (27 English ships
against 33 French and Spanish ships). In the case of the Battle of Tsushima, also, the Japanese navy had the
upper hand in many respects. The Russian crews of the Baltic fleet which opposed them were exhausted after a
seven-month voyage which had taken them halfway round the world; the Arctic-born Russian crews had suffered
greatly from outbreaks of disease as they sailed through the equator area. Taking this into account, it is of little
surprise that an intensively trained Japanese Navy, in high morale and fighting near the mainland of Japan,
emerged victorious over the dispirited Russian forces.
|Rare International Tae Kwon-Do (ITF) video produced with the
GENERAL CHOI on North Korea, you can see Grand Master Park Jung
Tae, Grand Master Choi Jung Wha and other masters of the ITF
performing tuls and explaining the movements of each tul.
Hwa-Rang and Choong-Moo
1.Move the left foot to B forming a right L-stance toward B while executing a twin knife-hand block.
2.Move the right foot to B forming a right walking stance toward B while executing a high front strike to B with the
right knife-hand and bring the left back hand in front of the forehead.
3.Move the right foot to A turning clockwise to form a left L-stance toward A while executing a middle guarding block
to A with a knife-hand.
4.Move the left foot to A forming a left walking stance toward A while executing a high thrust to A with the left flat
5.Move the left foot to D forming a right L-stance toward D while executing a middle guarding block to D with a
6.Turn the face to C forming a left bending ready stance A toward C.
7.Execute a middle side piercing kick to C with the right foot.
8.Lower the right foot to C forming a right L-stance toward D while executing a middle guarding block to D with a
9.Execute a flying side piercing kick to D with the right foot soon after moving it to D and then land to D forming a left
L-stance toward D while executing a middle guarding block to D with a knife-hand.
10.Move the left foot to E turning counter clockwise to form a right L-stance toward E at the same time executing a
low block to E with the left forearm.
11.Extend both hands upward as if to grab the opponent's head while forming a left walking stance toward E, slipping
the left foot.
12.Execute an upward kick to E with the right knee pulling both hands downward.
13.Lower the right foot to the left foot and then move the left foot to F forming a left walking stance toward F while
executing a high front strike to F with the right reverse knife-hand, bringing the left back hand under the right elbow
14.Execute a high turning kick to DF with the right foot and then lower it to the left foot.
15.Execute a middle back piercing kick to F with the left foot. Perform 14 and 15 in a fast motion.
16.Lower the left foot to F forming a left L-stance toward E while executing a middle guarding block to E with the
17.Execute a middle turning kick to DE with the left foot.
18.Lower the left foot to the right foot and then move the right foot to C forming a right fixed stance toward C while
executing a U-shape block toward C.
19.Jump and spin around counter clockwise, landing on the same spot to form a left L-stance toward C while
executing a middle guarding block to C with a knife-hand.
20.Move the left foot to C forming a left walking stance toward C at the same time executing a low thrust to C with the
right upset fingertip.
21.Execute a side back strike to D with the right back fist and a low block to C with the left forearm while forming a
right L-stance toward C, pulling the left foot.
22.Move the right foot to C forming a right walking stance toward C while executing a middle thrust to C with the right
straight finger tip.
23.Move the left foot to B turning counter clockwise to form a left walking stance toward B while executing a high
block to B with the left double forearm.
24.Move the right foot to B forming a sitting stance toward C while executing a middle front block to C with the right
forearm and then a high side strike to B with the right back fist.
25.Execute a middle side piercing kick to A with the right foot turning counter clockwise and then lower it to A.
26.Execute a middle side piercing kick to A with the left foot turning clockwise.
27.Lower the left foot to A and then execute a checking block to B with an X-knife-hand while forming a left L-stance
toward B pivoting with the left foot.
28.Move the left foot to B forming a left walking stance toward B while executing an upward block to B with a twin
29.Move the left foot on line AB and then execute a rising block with the right forearm while forming a right walking
stance toward A.
30.Execute a middle punch to A with the left fist while maintaining a right walking stance toward A.
END: Bring the left foot back to a ready posture